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African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology

African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology

On-site sanitation facilities, mostly pit latrines are the main points of human excreta disposal in peri-urban low-income settlements in Kenya. Collection, treatment and final disposal of pit latrine faecal sludge, pose a significant management problem and present public health risks. The choice of appropriate faecal sludge treatment technology depends on precise region based data on the ...

Faecal sludge drying beds increasing drying rates for

Faecal sludge drying beds increasing drying rates for

Nov 18, 2014 Drying beds are one of the most commonly employed technologies for sludge dewatering (Tchobanoglous et al. 2003). They are appropriate technologies for low-income countries, as they have low-operational requirements, and low-capital and operating costs; however, a major drawback is the required footprint.

In situ drying of faecal sludge in breathable membrane

In situ drying of faecal sludge in breathable membrane

Feb 20, 2019 During sludge drying, removal of water progresses in the order of free water, interstitial water, surface water and finally bound water. Hence, sludge drying curves typically exhibit a constant rate period for free water evaporation, followed by decreasing drying rate periods due to interstitial, surface and bound water removal (Chen et al. 2002).

Drying characteristics of faecal sludge from different on

Drying characteristics of faecal sludge from different on

Mar 02, 2020 Table 2 showed the amount of heat for drying with respect to sludge type and drying temperature. The heat required to dry the samples for most of the cases was similar and the differences were within the margins of the uncertainty, except for the VIP sample at 50 C that recorded the minimum heat of drying (2.6 0.2 MJ/kg of moisture removed).

Enhancing the MTE dewatering of sewage sludge by

Enhancing the MTE dewatering of sewage sludge by

particle by conditioning, sludge dewaterability is hindered when an impermeable layer is formed by the detached EPS on a filter media. Therefore, it is important to maintain porosity in the sludge body. Smollen and Kafaar (1997) found that mixing sludge with pyrolysed domestic refuse (char) and a small quantity of polyelectrolyte improved sludge

WELL Resource Centre Network for Water Sanitation and

WELL Resource Centre Network for Water Sanitation and

The sludge is placed in layers (e.g. 100 mm thick) that are then covered with 200 mm of soil before the next layer of sludge is added. The final layer should always be soil. After a couple of years, the contents can be dug out and used as a soil conditioner.

Solar Drying Skriptum AEE Intec

Solar Drying Skriptum AEE Intec

Sun drying of crops is the most widespread method of food preservation in a lot of African countries due solar irradiance being very high for the most of the year. There are some drawbacks relating to the traditional method of drying, i.e., spreading the crop in thin layers

Drying Racks Best Price online for Drying Racks in Kenya

Drying Racks Best Price online for Drying Racks in Kenya

Shop for Drying Racks online at Jumia Kenya. Discover a great selection of Drying Racks at the best prices Best prices in Kenya Pay Online or Cash On Delivery. Order now!

Gallbladder Sludge Symptoms Causes and Treatment

Gallbladder Sludge Symptoms Causes and Treatment

May 03, 2017 Gallbladder sludge forms when bile remains in the gallbladder for too long. Mucus from the gallbladder can mix with cholesterol and calcium salts, combining to create the sludge.

Modeling of Thin Layer Drying for Dewatered Sewage Sludge

Modeling of Thin Layer Drying for Dewatered Sewage Sludge

Experiments on the moisture analyzer for thin layer dewatered sludge drying are presented in this paper. The sludge drying rate of different temperature and thickness a reinvestigated. The model basing on the drying characteristic curve is adopted to simulate the drying rate evolution as a function of water content and the results show that the model could be used to evaluate the thin-layer ...

What are the Important Types of Dewatering Equipment

What are the Important Types of Dewatering Equipment

With time, the sludge dries, and cracks develop on the surface. These cracks allow the evaporation of lower layers of the sludge. The design parameters of a drying bed includes: Depth of sludge; Moisture content of sludge; Availability of sand bed area; 5. Sludge Lagoons. Sludge lagoons are excavated areas that are used to deposit and dry the ...

Waste Stabilization Ponds Global Water Pathogen Project

Waste Stabilization Ponds Global Water Pathogen Project

Mar 13, 2017 Waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) are sanitation technologies that consist of open basins that use natural processes to treat domestic wastewater, septage, and sludge, as well as animal or industrial wastes. They can be used in centralized or semi-centralized sewerage systems, they can also be used to treat fecal sludge from onsite dry sanitation systems, or as onsite water-based …

Innovations in Sludge Drying Beds A Practical Technology

Innovations in Sludge Drying Beds A Practical Technology

The dewatered sludge remains on the bed and the new layer is applied directly on top of it as compared to conventional sand beds where each layer must be removed prior to the next application. An operational system in Washington Township, NJ was designed for an annual solids loading of 100 kg/ m2/yr (3.5 m depth of aerobically digested sludge ...

PDF Analysis of physiochemical characteristics

PDF Analysis of physiochemical characteristics

Analysis of physiochemical characteristics influencing disposal of pit latrine sludge in Nakuru Municipality, Kenya March 2017 African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 11(3):139-145

Convective Drying of Sewage Sludge Layer in Through flow

Convective Drying of Sewage Sludge Layer in Through flow

The sludge layer was formed by loading cylindrical extrudates on a grate of 0.5 m 0.5 m size. The drying air was directed through the layer, as typically encountered in industrial belt dryers. Under such setup, the sludge layer structure and porosity significantly affect the air flow conditions and thus the drying …

A critical review on sludge management from onsite

A critical review on sludge management from onsite

Aug 04, 2021 Heinss et al. (1994) found a bottom sludge layer of 130–180 g/L in 4 weeks. Degraded FS from the septic tank was found to settle in approximately 30–60 min, whereas the same was 4 h for public toilets (Alicia and Herron, 2011). Though settling/thickening tanks or ponds (non-mechanised, batch-operated) can separate the solids, the ideal ...

PDF A thin layer drying model for paddy dryer

PDF A thin layer drying model for paddy dryer

In order to study the drying characteristics of the sewage sludge thin layer in the process of superheated steam drying and hot air drying, the internal-circulation drying test-bed under normal ...

Sludge dewatering with GEA decanters for efficient and

Sludge dewatering with GEA decanters for efficient and

GEA decanters reliably separate the accrued sludge into solids and reusable water. Thanks to their high dewatering performance, they are able to concentrate the solids to a high content of dry matter, which results in a considerable volume reduction and thus accordingly lower disposal costs. To avoid corrosion permanently even in the case of ...

gravity thickener in extende aeration

gravity thickener in extende aeration

The biological sludge is thickened in a gravity thickener and historically was dried on sand drying beds and in geotextile bags in winter conditions. Alexandra has a continental climate with winter temperature down to minus 12 C and in summer temperatures of 35C. However insufficient land for drying beds and

Briquette production as reuse

Briquette production as reuse

The sludge is then pumped from the NAWASSCO treatment plant, through a newly built connection pipe, to NAWASSCOAL’s briquette production site for further drying to 20% moisture content using open-air drying beds and a solar drier, or a combination of the two. This process results in approximately 200 m 3 or 140 t/day of sludge for processing into

Thin Layer Drying Characteristics and Modeling of Paper Sludge

Thin Layer Drying Characteristics and Modeling of Paper Sludge

In this paper, the drying experiments of paper sludge were performed at different drying conditions. The drying kinetics and phenomena of paper sludge were investigated. The effective diffusivity and the activation energy of the paper sludge during drying had been evaluated. At the same time, seven empirical models were used to model the experimental data, such as Newton, Page, Modified Page ...

Water Handbook Wastewater Treatment SUEZ

Water Handbook Wastewater Treatment SUEZ

Sludge Drying Beds. Sludge drying beds consist of a layer of sand over a gravel bed. Underdrains spaced throughout the system collect the filtrate, which usually is returned to the wastewater plant. Water is drained from the sludge cake by gravity through the sand and gravel bed. This process is complete within the first 2 days.

Research Paper Faecal sludge as a solid industrial fuel a

Research Paper Faecal sludge as a solid industrial fuel a

wastewater sludge dry matter (DM) per year (Richers et al. ). In Switzerland, one cement company uses around 15,000 tons of wastewater sludge DM per year, and in 2012, 27% of wastewater sludge produced in Switzerland was used as an industrial fuel in cement production (Tezcan ). The calorific value of FS is 12.2–19.1 MJ/kg

Urban Sanitation in Bangladesh Component 4 Treatment

Urban Sanitation in Bangladesh Component 4 Treatment

After four years the sludge will be fully decomposed, and will no longer contain harmful elements. Better even, nutrients in the remaining soil can be safely re-used as soil conditioner or bio briquettes. By the way, re-using sludge is something we do in Kenya as well, with …

FSM3 3rd International Faecal Sludge Management

FSM3 3rd International Faecal Sludge Management

Jan 19, 2015 Room 3. back to top of page. 11.00 – 12.30 FS Desludging and Transportation – Session 1 Moderator: Steve Sugden, Water for People, United Kingdom (Download the Abstracts for this session) *The efficacy of low-cost technologies to improve traditional sludge management practices in Madagascar: Jonathan Annis, fhi360, Practica and USAID/WASHplus, Washington DC, USA

Sludge Drying Bed SSWM Find tools for sustainable

Sludge Drying Bed SSWM Find tools for sustainable

The piping to the sludge drying beds should be designed for velocity of at-least 0.75 m/s (TCHOBANOGLOUS et al. 2003). The sludge is placed on the bed in 20–30 cm layers and allowed to dry. Sludge cake removal is manual by shovelling into wheel-barrows, trucks, scraper, or front-end loader. The drying period is 10–15 days, and the moisture ...

Processes and technologies for sludge treatment

Processes and technologies for sludge treatment

Apr 19, 2017 The draining material usually consists of 10 cm layers of sand on a 10-20 cm layer of gravel, with a network of pipes underneath to collect the water to be treated in the WWTP. The sand layer must be replenished from time to time as sand is lost …

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